Tuesday, 29 December 2015

Sikhism - History of Panj Payare

Panj Pyare the Five Beloved of Sikh History




Guru Gobind Singh Creates the Original Panj Pyare of 1699

The original five beloved Panj Pyare played a vital role in the shaping Sikh history and defining Sikhism. Guru Gobind Singh asked for volunteers ready to give their heads. Five courageous men answered the call. The guru initiated them into the order of Khalsa, a sect ofsant saphai, or saint soldiers. These spiritual warriors vowed not only to fight adversaries on the battlefield but to combat the inner enemyegoism with humility through service to humanity and abolishing caste. They performed the original Amrit Sanchar, or Sikhinitiation ceremony, baptizing Guru Gobind Singh and then about 80,000 others onVaisakhi of 1699.

1.  Bhai Daya Singh (1661 - 1708)

Panj Pyare, leading a procession at Wolverhampton. - J Singh/Creative Commons
J Singh/Creative Commons
The first of the Panj Pyare to answer the call of Guru Gobind Singh and offer his head was Bhai Daya Singh.
  • Birth: 1661. Lahore, (present day Pakistan). Born Daya Ram.
  • Family: Son of Suddha and his wife Mai Dayali of the Sobhi Khatri clan.
  • Occupation: Shopkeeper.
  • Initiation: Anand Pur, 1669. Age 38.
  • Death: Nanded, 1708. Martyred age 47.
Upon initiation, Daya Ram gave up the occupation and alliance of his Khatri caste to become Daya Singh and join the Khalsa warriors. The meaning of Daya is merciful, kind, compassionate and Singh is lion, qualities which are inherent in the five beloved Panj Pyare. Bhai Daya Singh fought beside Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa in the siege of Anand Pur and helped the guru to escape from the battle of Chamkaur in December, 1705.

    2.  Bhai Dharam Singh (1699 - 1708)

    PanjSacramento1500x.jpg - Photo © [S Khalsa]
    Female Panj with Nishan Flags. Photo © [S Khalsa]
    The second of the Panj Pyare to answer the call of Guru Gobind Singh and offer his head was Bahi Dharam Singh.
    • Birth: 1666 By River Ganges in Hastinapur, NE of Meerut, present day Delhi. Born Dharam Das.
    • Family: Son of Sant Ram and his wife Mai Sabho of the Jatt clan.
    • Occupation: Farmer.
    • Initiation: Anand Pur, 1699. Age 33.
    • Death: Nanded, 1708. Martyred age 42.
    Upon initiation, Dharam Ram gave up the occupation and alliance of his Jatt caste to become Dharam Singh and join the Khalsa warriors. The meaning of Dharam is righteous living and Singh is lion, qualities which are inherent in the five beloved Panj Pyare. Bhai Dharam Singh fought beside Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa in Anand Pur and and helped the guru to escape from the battle of Chamkaur in December, 1705.

    3.  Bhai Himmat Singh (1661 - 1705)

    PanjStockton1500.jpg - Photo © [S Khalsa]
    Panj Pyare with Nishan Flag. Photo © [S Khalsa]
    The third of the Panj Pyare to answer the call of Guru Gobind Singh and offer his head was Bhai Himmat Singh.
    • Birth: January 18,1661 Jagannath Puri, Present day Orrissa. Born Himmat Rai.
    • Family: Son of Gulzaree and his wife Dhanoo of the Jheeaur clan.
    • Occupation: Water carrier.
    • Initiation: Anand Pur, 1699. Age 38.
    • Death: Chamkaur, December 7, 1705. Martyred age 44.
    Upon initiation, Himmat Rai gave up the occupation and alliance of his Kumhar caste to become Himmat Singh and join the Khalsa warriors. The meaning of Himmat is courageous spirit and Singh is lion, qualities which are inherent in the five beloved Panj Pyare. Bhai Himmat Singh fought beside Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa in Anand Pur and and died at the the battle of Chamkaur in December, 1705.

    4.  Bhai Muhkam Singh (1663 - 1705)

    Panj Pyare in Amrit Ceremony - Gurmustuk Singh Khalsa
    Panj Pyare in Amrit Ceremony. Gurmustuk Singh Khalsa
    The fourth to answer the call of Guru Gobind Singh and offer his head was Bhai Muhkam Singh.
    • Birth: June 6,1663. Dwarka, present day Gujrat. Born Muhkam Chand.
    • Family: Son of Tirath Chand and his wife Devi Bai of the Chhimba clan.
    • Occupation: Tailor, printer of cloth.
    • Initiation: Anand Pur, 1699. Age 36.
    • Death: Chamkaur, December 7, 1705. Martyred age 44.
    Upon initiation, Muhkam Chand gave up the occupation and alliance of his Chhimba caste to become Muhkam Singh and join the Khalsa warriors. The meaning of Muhkam is strong firm leader or manager and Singh is lion, qualities inherent in the five beloved Panj Pyare. Bhai Muhkam Singh fought beside Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa in Anand Pur and sacrificed his life at the battle of Chamkaur in December 7, 1705.

    5.  Bhai Sahib Singh (1662 - 1705)

    Panj Pyara in Yuba City Annual Parade - Photo © [Khalsa Panth]
    Panj Pyara in Yuba City Annual Parade. Photo © [Khalsa Panth]
    The fourth to answer the call of Guru Gobind Singhand offer his head was Bhai Sahib Singh.
    • Birth: June 17,1663. Bidar, present day Karnatka, India. Born Sahib Chand.
    • Family: Son of Bhai Guru Narayana and his wife Ankamma Bai of the Naee clan.
    • Occupation: Barber.
    • Initiation: Anand Pur, 1699. Age 37.
    • Death: Chamkaur, December 7, 1705. Martyred age 44.
    Upon initiation, Sahib Chand gave up the occupation and alliance of his Nai caste to become Sahib Singh and join the Khalsa warriors. The meaning of Sahib is lordly or masterful and Singh is lion, qualities inherent in the five beloved Panj Pyare. Bhai Sahib Singh fought beside Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa in Anand Pur and gave his life defending the 10th guru at the battle of Chamkaur in December 7, 1705.
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